Category: Amazon


Why Apple Joined Rivals Amazon, Google, Microsoft In AI Partnership

By Hugo Angel,

Apple CEO Tim Cook (Photo credit: David Paul Morris/Bloomberg)

Apple is pushing past its famous secrecy for the sake of artificial intelligence.

In December, the Cupertino tech giant quietly published its first AI research paper. Now, it’s joining the Partnership on AI to Benefit People and Society, an industry nonprofit group founded by some of its biggest rivals, including Microsoft, Google and Amazon.

On Friday, the partnership announced that Apple’s head of advanced development for SiriTom Gruber, is joining its board. Gruber has been at Apple since 2010 when the iPhone maker bought Siri, the company he cofounded and where he served as CTO.

“We’re glad to see the industry engaging on some of the larger opportunities and concerns created with the advance of machine learning and AI,” wrote Gruber in a statement on the nonprofit’s website. “We believe it’s beneficial to Apple, our customers, and the industry to play an active role in its development and look forward to collaborating with the group to help drive discussion on how to advance AI while protecting the privacy and security of consumers.”

Other members of the board include

  • Greg Corrado from Google’s DeepMind,
  • Ralf Herbrich from Amazon,
  • Eric Horvitz from Microsoft,
  • Yann Lecun from Facebook, and
  • Francesca Rossi from IBM.

Outside of large companies, the group announced it’s also adding members from the

  • American Civil Liberties Union,
  • OpenAI,
  • MacArthur Foundation,
  • Peterson Institute of International Economics,
  • Arizona State University and the
  • University of California, Berkeley.

The group was formally announced in September.

Board member Horvitz, who is director of Microsoft Research, said the members of the group started meeting with each other at various AI conferences. They were already close colleagues in the field and they thought they could start working together to discuss emerging challenges and opportunities in AI.

 “We believed there were a lot of things companies could do together on issues and challenges in the realm of AI and society,” Horvitz said in an interview. “We don’t see these as areas for competition but for rich cooperation.

The organization will work together to develop best practices and educate the public around AI. Horvitz said the group tackle, for example, critical areas like health care and transportation. The group will look at the potential for biases in AI — after some experiments have shown that the way researchers train the AI algorithms can lead to biases in gender and race. The nonprofit will also try to develop standards around human-machine collaboration, for example, to deal with questions like when should a self-driving car hand off control to the driver.

“I think there’s a realization that AI will touch society quite deeply in the coming years in powerful and nuanced ways,” Horitz said. “We think it’s really important to involve the public as well as experts. Some of these directions has no simple answer. It can’t come from a company. We need to have multiple constituents checking in.”

The AI community has been critical of Apple’s secrecy for several years secrecy has hurt the company’s recruiting efforts for AI talent. The company has been falling behind in some of the major advancements in AI, especially as intelligent voice assistants from Amazon and Google have started taking off with consumers.

Horvitz said the group had been in discussions with Apple since before its launch in September. But Apple wasn’t ready to formally join the group until now. “My own sense is that Apple was in the middle of their iOS 10 and iPhone 7 launches” and wasn’t ready to announce, he said. “We’ve always treated Apple as a founding member of the group.

I think Apple had a realization that to do the best AI research and to have access to the top minds in the field is the expectation of engaging openly with academic research communities,” Horitz said. “Other companies like Microsoft have discovered this over the years. We can be quite competitive and be open to sharing ideas when it comes to the core foundational science.

“It’s my hope that this partnership with Apple shows that the company has a rich engagement with people, society and stakeholders,” he said.

ORIGINAL: Forbes
Aaron TilleyFORBES STAFF
Jan 27, 2017

Partnership on Artificial Intelligence to Benefit People and Society

By Hugo Angel,

Established to study and formulate best practices on AI technologies, to advance the public’s understanding of AI, and to serve as an open platform for discussion and engagement about AI and its influences on people and society.

THE LATEST
INDUSTRY LEADERS ESTABLISH PARTNERSHIP ON AI BEST PRACTICES

Press ReleasesSeptember 28, 2016 NEW YORK —  IBM, DeepMind,/Google,  Microsoft, Amazon, and Facebook today announced that they will create a non-profit organization that will work to advance public understanding of artificial intelligence technologies (AI) and formulate best practices on the challenges and opportunities within the field. Academics, non-profits, and specialists in policy and ethics will be invited to join the Board of the organization, named the Partnership on Artificial Intelligence to Benefit People and Society (Partnership on AI).

The objective of the Partnership on AI is to address opportunities and challenges with AI technologies to benefit people and society. Together, the organization’s members will conduct research, recommend best practices, and publish research under an open license in areas such as ethics, fairness, and inclusivity; transparency, privacy, and interoperability; collaboration between people and AI systems; and the trustworthiness, reliability, and robustness of the technology. It does not intend to lobby government or other policymaking bodies.

The organization’s founding members will each contribute financial and research resources to the partnership and will share leadership with independent third-parties, including academics, user group advocates, and industry domain experts. There will be equal representation of corporate and non-corporate members on the board of this new organization. The Partnership is in discussions with professional and scientific organizations, such as the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), as well as non-profit research groups including the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence (AI2), and anticipates announcements regarding additional participants in the near future.

AI technologies hold tremendous potential to improve many aspects of life, ranging from healthcare, education, and manufacturing to home automation and transportation. Through rigorous research, the development of best practices, and an open and transparent dialogue, the founding members of the Partnership on AI hope to maximize this potential and ensure it benefits as many people as possible.

… Continue reading

Robert Reich: The Nightmarish Future for American Jobs and Incomes Is Here

By admin,

Even knowledge-based jobs will disappear as wealth gets more concentrated at the top in the next 10 years.
Photo Credit: via YouTube
What will happen to American jobs, incomes, and wealth a decade from now?
Predictions are hazardous but survivable. In 1991, in my book The Work of Nations, I separated almost all work into three categories, and then predicted what would happen to each of them.
The first category I called “routine production services,” which entailed the kind of repetitive tasks performed by the old foot soldiers of American capitalism through most of the twentieth century — done over and over, on an assembly line or in an office.
I estimated that such work then constituted about one-quarter of all jobs in the United States, but would decline steadily as such jobs were replaced by
  • new labor-saving technologies and
  • by workers in developing nations eager to do them for far lower wages.

I also assumed the pay of remaining routine production workers in America would drop, for similar reasons.

I was not far wrong.
The second category I called “in-person services.This work had to be provided personally because the “human touch” was essential to it. It included retail sales workers, hotel and restaurant workers, nursing-home aides, realtors, childcare workers, home health-care aides, flight attendants, physical therapists, and security guards, among many others.
In 1990, by my estimate, such workers accounted for about 30 percent of all jobs in America, and I predicted their numbers would grow because — given that their services were delivered in person — neither advancing technologies nor foreign-based workers would be able to replace them.
I also predicted their pay would drop. They would be competing with
  • a large number of former routine production workers, who could only find jobs in the “in-person” sector.
  • They would also be competing with labor-saving machinery such as automated tellers, computerized cashiers, automatic car washes, robotized vending machines, and self-service gas pumps —
  • as well as “personal computers linked to television screensthrough which “tomorrow’s consumers will be able to buy furniture, appliances, and all sorts of electronic toys from their living rooms — examining the merchandise from all angles, selecting whatever color, size, special features, and price seem most appealing, and then transmitting the order instantly to warehouses from which the selections will be shipped directly to their homes. 
  • So, too, with financial transactions, airline and hotel reservations, rental car agreements, and similar contracts, which will be executed between consumers in their homes and computer banks somewhere else on the globe.”

Here again, my predictions were not far off. But I didn’t foresee how quickly advanced technologies would begin to make inroads even on in-person services. Ten years from now I expect Amazon will have wiped out many of today’s retail jobs, and Google‘s self-driving car will eliminate many bus drivers, truck drivers, sanitation workers, and even Uber drivers.

The third job category I named “symbolic-analytic services.” Here I included all the problem-solving, problem-identifying, and strategic thinking that go into the manipulation of symbols—data, words, oral and visual representations.
I estimated in 1990 that symbolic analysts accounted for 20 percent of all American jobs, and expected their share to continue to grow, as would their incomes, because the demand for people to do these jobs would continue to outrun the supply of people capable of doing them. This widening disconnect between symbolic-analytic jobs and the other two major categories of work would, I predicted, be the major force driving widening inequality.
Again, I wasn’t far off. But I didn’t anticipate how quickly or how wide the divide would become, or how great a toll inequality and economic insecurity would take. I would never have expected, for example, that the life expectancy of an American white woman without a high school degree would decrease by five years between 1990 and 2008.
We are now faced not just with labor-replacing technologies but with knowledge-replacing technologies. The combination of
  • advanced sensors,
  • voice recognition,
  • artificial intelligence,
  • big data,
  • text-mining, and
  • pattern-recognition algorithms,

is generating smart robots capable of quickly learning human actions, and even learning from one another. A revolution in life sciences is also underway, allowing drugs to be tailored to a patient’s particular condition and genome.

If the current trend continues, many more symbolic analysts will be replaced in coming years. The two largest professionally intensive sectors of the United States — health care and education — will be particularly affected because of increasing pressures to hold down costs and, at the same time, the increasing accessibility of expert machines.
We are on the verge of a wave of mobile health applications, for example, measuring everything from calories to blood pressure, along with software programs capable of performing the same functions as costly medical devices and diagnostic software that can tell you what it all means and what to do about it.
Schools and universities will likewise be reorganized around smart machines (although faculties will scream all the way). Many teachers and university professors are already on the way to being replaced by software — so-called “MOOCs” (Massive Open Online Courses) and interactive online textbooks — along with adjuncts that guide student learning.
As a result, income and wealth will become even more concentrated than they are today. Those who create or invest in blockbuster ideas will earn unprecedented sums and returns. The corollary is they will have enormous political power. But most people will not share in the monetary gains, and their political power will disappear. The middle class’s share of the total economic pie will continue to shrink, while the share going to the very top will continue to grow.
But the current trend is not preordained to last, and only the most rigid technological determinist would assume this to be our inevitable fate. We can — indeed, I believe we must — ignite a political movement to reorganize the economy for the benefit of the many, rather than for the lavish lifestyles of a precious few and their heirs. (I have more to say on this in my upcoming book, Saving Capitalism: For the Many, Not the Few, out at the end of September.)
Robert B. Reich has served in three national administrations, most recently as secretary of labor under President Bill Clinton. He also served on President Obama’s transition advisory board. His latest book is “Aftershock: The Next Economy and America’s Future.” His homepage is www.robertreich.org.
May 7, 2015
ROBERT B. REICH, Chancellor’s Professor of Public Policy at the University of California at Berkeley and Senior Fellow at the Blum Center for Developing Economies, was Secretary of Labor in the Clinton administration. Time Magazine named him one of the ten most effective cabinet secretaries of the twentieth century. He has written thirteen books, including the best sellers “Aftershock” and “The Work of Nations.” His latest, “Beyond Outrage,” is now out in paperback. He is also a founding editor of the American Prospect magazine and chairman of Common Cause. His new film, “Inequality for All,” is now available on Netflix, iTunes, DVD, and On Demand.

Amazon, following Microsoft, introduces a cloud service for machine learning

By admin,

Amazon Web Services senior vice president Andy Jassy speaks at the 2015 AWS Summit in San Francisco on April 9.
Image Credit: Jordan Novet/VentureBeat
Amazon Web Services, the largest public cloud in the market, today debuted a service developers can use to introduce machine learning into their applications.
Andy Jassy, head of the Amazon cloud, spoke about the new service, Amazon Machine Learning, at the 2015 AWS Summit in San Francisco.
It’s not the most surprising thing in the world, considering that MS announced its own similar service, Azure Machine Learning, last June.
It will be interesting to see how Google, the other company in the triad of leaders in the cloud infrastructure market — and arguably one of the most significant machine learning companies in the world — will respond to Microsoft and now Amazon making cloud services anyone can use to train models and make predictions as a managed cloud service.
Amazon’s service is available to try out today, Jassy said.
Check out Amazon’s blog post for details on the new feature.
ORIGINAL: Venture Beat
April 9, 2015 11:02 AM