Category: Art


Revelado el misterio de los trazos invisibles de Leonardo Da Vinci

By Hugo Angel,

A simple vista parecen un papel viejo en blanco, pero bajo la luz ultravioleta se puede apreciar más de una docena de esbozos de manos dibujadas por Leonardo Da Vinci. Los dos trozos de papel, que ahora se sabe que formaron parte del estudio preliminar del artista para pintar la famosa obra La Adoración de los Magos (1481), se exhibirán al público por primera vez en la Galería de la Reina, en el Palacio de Buckingham, con motivo del 500 aniversario de la muerte del artista florentino.Los dibujos invisibles de Da Vinci se podrán apreciar bajo la luz ultravioleta a partir del mes de febrero del año que viene. Los más eruditos conocían desde hace algún tiempo la existencia de las páginas “en blanco” de la colección de Da Vinci, que se habían preservado porque varios expertos se dieron cuenta de que el papel presentaba hendiduras.

El resultado del análisis de los trazos invisibles

Los esbozos de mano habían permanecido ocultos durante décadas hasta que fueron examinados bajo luz ultravioleta, una técnica que permitió revelar el trabajo asombrosamente detallado de las manos. Recientemente, los expertos centraron la atención en saber por qué el dibujo se había borrado aparentemente.

Leonardo ejecutó los estudios de manos en punto metálico, que implica dibujar con un lápiz metálico sobre papel preparado”, ha explicado Martin Clayton, el director de impresiones y dibujos de la colección real de tesoros de Reino Unido, que ha añadido también que las dos hojas de papel se mostrarán al público, junto a una fotografía de la imagen ultravioleta que revela las manos.

Dibujos de Leonardo en el Palazzo Reale de Milan

Dibujos de Leonardo en el Palazzo Reale de Milan (Palazzo Reale)

 

Una de las hojas que contiene los esbozos de manos de La Adoración de los Magos fue analizada en las instalaciones del sincrotrón nacional del Reino Unido, que se encuentra en Oxfordshire. El centro utilizó fluorescencia de rayos X de alta energía para mapear la distribución de los elementos químicos en el papel.

Se descubrió que los dibujos se habían vuelto invisibles a simple vista debido al alto contenido de cobre en el lápiz óptico que Leonardo usaba: el cobre metálico había reaccionado con el tiempo para convertirse en una sal de cobre transparente”, ha aclarado Clayton.

Los dibujos de Leonardo, encuadernados en un solo álbum por el escultor Pompeo Leoni en Milán alrededor de 1590, ingresaron en la Colección Real durante el reinado de Carlos II. Probablemente Henry Howard, nieto de Thomas Howard, conde de Arundel, un prolífico coleccionista de dibujos que los adquirió en 1620, fuera quien se los donó a la Casa Real.

En 2019 varias ciudades acogerán exposiciones en homenaje a Da Vinci

Los dibujos que contiene el álbum reflejan las pasiones e intereses asombrosamente diversos de Leonardo, como

  • pintura
  • escultura
  • arquitectura
  • música
  • anatomía
  • ingeniería
  • botánica
  • táctica militar
  • cartografía
  • geología.

En este sentido uno de los dibujos más extraños es un estudio de varios gatos, leones y un dragón, que Da Vinci realizó para un tratado no realizado “sobre los movimientos de los animales con cuatro pies, entre los que se encuentra el hombre, que en su infancia se arrastra a cuatro patas”.

Los trazos invisibles de Da Vinci saldrán a la luz con motivo de las exposiciones simultáneas en varias ciudades que Reino Unido organizará el año en homenaje a Da Vinci. Los dibujos de Da Vinci llegarán a Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield, Southampton y Sunderland, según ha informado la Fundación de la Colección Real, que posee medio millar de dibujos del artista.

No obstante, previamente los dibujos se podrán ver juntos en una exhibición de unas 200 obras de Da Vinci en la Galería de la Reina del palacio de Buckingham, en Londres, en lo que será la “exposición más importante del trabajo de Leonardo en 65 años, según fuentes de la fundación.

Martin Clayton ha comentado que Da Vinci dibujó intensamente, “no solo para preparar proyectos artísticos, sino para

  • engendrar nuevas ideas,
  • registrar sus observaciones y
  • probar sus teorías de cada materia”.

Y ha agregado: “Y porque acumuló miles de dibujos y folios de manuscritos hasta el final de su vida, tenemos un conocimiento inigualable del funcionamiento de la mente extraordinaria de Leonardo”.

Los dibujos más importantes de Leonardo han estado en la Colección Real durante más de 350 años”, ha concluido Clayton, quien también destaca el buen estado de conservación de las obras. Sin embargo, las obras son frágiles y sólo se permite exhibirlas a la luz en intervalos cortos, lo que hace que la exhibición sea una oportunidad única para conocer de cerca una parte muy importante del legado del artista.

Una exposición en la Galería de la Reina reunirá 200 obras del artista

ORIGINAL: La Vanguardia
By Redacción, Barcelona

 

Spectacular Visualizations of Brain Scans Enhanced with 1,750 Pieces of Gold Leaf

By Hugo Angel,

Self Reflected, 22K gilded microetching, 96″ X 130″, 2014-2016, Greg Dunn and Brian Edwards. The entire Self Reflected microetching under violet and white light. (photo by Greg Dunn and Will Drinker)
Anyone who thinks that scientists can’t be artists need look no further than Dr. Greg Dunn and Dr. Brian Edwards. The neuroscientist and applied physicist have paired together to create an artistic series of images that the artists describe as “the most fundamental self-portrait ever created.Literally going inside, the pair has blown up a thin slice of the brain 22 times in a series called Self-Reflected.
Traveling across 500,000 neurons, the images took two years to complete, as Dunn and Edwards developed special technology for the project. Using a technique they’ve called reflective microetching, they microscopically manipulated the reflectivity of the brain’s surface. Different regions of the brain were hand painted and digitized, later using a computer program created by Edwards to show the complex choreography our mind undergoes as it processes information.
After printing the designs onto transparencies, the duo added 1,750 gold leaf sheets to increase the art’s reflectivity. The astounding results are images that demonstrate the delicate flow and balance of our brain’s activity. “Self Reflected was created to remind us that the most marvelous machine in the known universe is at the core of our being and is the root of our shared humanity,” the artists share.
Self Reflected fine art prints and microetchings are available for purchase via Dunn’s website.
Self Reflected is an unprecedented look inside the brain.
Self Reflected (detail), 22K gilded microetching, 96″ X 130″, 2014-2016, Greg Dunn and Brian Edwards. The parietal gyrus where movement and vision are integrated. (photo by Greg Dunn and Will Drinker)

 

Self Reflected (detail), 22K gilded microetching, 96″ X 130″, 2014-2016, Greg Dunn and Brian Edwards. The brainstem and cerebellum, regions that control basic body and motor functions. (photo by Greg Dunn and Will Drinker)

 

An astounding achievement in scientific art, the artists applied 1,750 leaves of gold to the final microetchings.
Self Reflected (detail), 22K gilded microetching, 96″ X 130″, 2014-2016, Greg Dunn and Brian Edwards. The laminar structure of the cerebellum, a region involved in movement and proprioception (calculating where your body is in space).

 

Self Reflected (detail), 22K gilded microetching, 96″ X 130″, 2014-2016, Greg Dunn and Brian Edwards. The pons, a region involved in movement and implicated in consciousness. (photo by Greg Dunn and Will Drinker)

 

Self Reflected (detail), 22K gilded microetching, 96″ X 130″, 2014-2016, Greg Dunn and Brian Edwards. Raw colorized microetching data from the reticular formation.

 

Self Reflected (detail), 22K gilded microetching, 96″ X 130″, 2014-2016, Greg Dunn and Brian Edwards. The visual cortex, the region located at the back of the brain that processes visual information.

 

Self Reflected (detail), 22K gilded microetching, 96″ X 130″, 2014-2016, Greg Dunn and Brian Edwards. The thalamus and basal ganglia, sorting senses, initiating movement, and making decisions. (photo by Greg Dunn and Will Drinker)

 

Self Reflected, 22K gilded microetching, 96″ X 130″, 2014-2016, Greg Dunn and Brian Edwards. The entire Self Reflected microetching under white light. (photo by Greg Dunn and Will Drinker)
Self Reflected (detail), 22K gilded microetching, 96″ X 130″, 2014-2016, Greg Dunn and Brian Edwards. The midbrain, an area that carries out diverse functions in reward, eye movement, hearing, attention, and movement. (photo by Greg Dunn and Will Drinker)
This video shows how the etched neurons twinkle as a light source is moved.

Interested in learning more? Watch Dr. Greg Dunn present the project at The Franklin Institute.
Dr. Greg Dunn: Website | Facebook | Instagram
My Modern Met granted permission to use photos by Dr. Greg Dunn.

ORIGINAL: My MET
By Jessica Stewart 
April 12, 2017

  Category: Art, Brain, Neuroscience, Visualization
  Comments: Comments Off on Spectacular Visualizations of Brain Scans Enhanced with 1,750 Pieces of Gold Leaf

Next Rembrandt

By Hugo Angel,

01 GATHERING THE DATA
To distill the artistic DNA of Rembrandt, an extensive database of his paintings was built and analyzed, pixel by pixel.
FUN FACT:
150 Gigabytes of digitally rendered graphics

BUILDING AN EXTENSIVE POOL OF DATA
t’s been almost four centuries since the world lost the talent of one its most influential classical painters, Rembrandt van Rijn. To bring him back, we distilled the artistic DNA from his work and used it to create The Next Rembrandt.
We examined the entire collection of Rembrandt’s work, studying the contents of his paintings pixel by pixel. To get this data, we analyzed a broad range of materials like high resolution 3D scans and digital files, which were upscaled by deep learning algorithms to maximize resolution and quality. This extensive database was then used as the foundation for creating The Next Rembrandt.
Data is used by many people today to help them be more efficient and knowledgeable about their daily work, and about the decisions they need to make. But in this project it’s also used to make life itself more beautiful. It really touches the human soul.
– Ron Augustus, Microsoft
02 DETERMINING THE SUBJECT
Data from Rembrandt’s body of work showed the way to the subject of the new painting.
FUN FACT:
346 Paintings were studied


DELVING INTO REMBRANDT VAN RIJN
  • 49% FEMALE
  • 51% MALE
Throughout his life, Rembrandt painted a great number of self-portraits, commissioned portraits and group shots, Biblical scenes, and even a few landscapes. He’s known for painting brutally honest and unforgiving portrayals of his subjects, utilizing a limited color palette for facial emphasis, and innovating the use of light and shadows.
“There’s a lot of Rembrandt data available — you have this enormous amount of technical data from all these paintings from various collections. And can we actually create something out of it that looks like Rembrandt? That’s an appealing question.”
– Joris Dik, Technical University Delft
BREAKING DOWN THE DEMOGRAPHICS IN REMBRANDT’S WORK
To create new artwork using data from Rembrandt’s paintings, we had to maximize the data pool from which to pull information. Because he painted more portraits than any other subject, we narrowed down our exploration to these paintings.
Then we found the period in which the majority of these paintings were created: between 1632 and 1642. Next, we defined the demographic segmentation of the people in these works and saw which elements occurred in the largest sample of paintings. We funneled down that selection starting with gender and then went on to analyze everything from age and head direction, to the amount of facial hair present.
After studying the demographics, the data lead us to a conclusive subject: a portrait of a Caucasian male with facial hair, between the ages of thirty and forty, wearing black clothes with a white collar and a hat, facing to the right.
03 GENERATING THE FEATURES
A software system was designed to understand Rembrandt’s style and generate new features.
FUN FACT:
500+ Hours of rendering
MASTERING THE STYLE OF REMBRANDT
In creating the new painting, it was imperative to stay accurate to Rembrandt’s unique style. As “The Master of Light and Shadow,” Rembrandt relied on his innovative use of lighting to shape the features in his paintings. By using very concentrated light sources, he essentially created a “spotlight effect” that gave great attention to the lit elements and left the rest of the painting shrouded in shadows. This resulted in some of the features being very sharp and in focus and others becoming soft and almost blurry, an effect that had to be replicated in the new artwork.
When you want to make a new painting you have some idea of how it’s going to look. But in our case we started from basically nothing — we had to create a whole painting using just data from Rembrandt’s paintings.
– Ben Haanstra, Developer
GENERATING FEATURES BASED ON DATA
To master his style, we designed a software system that could understand Rembrandt based on his use of geometry, composition, and painting materials. A facial recognition algorithm identified and classified the most typical geometric patterns used by Rembrandt to paint human features. It then used the learned principles to replicate the style and generate new facial features for our painting.
CONSTRUCTING A FACE OUT OF THE NEW FEATURES
Once we generated the individual features, we had to assemble them into a fully formed face and bust according to Rembrandt’s use of proportions. An algorithm measured the distances between the facial features in Rembrandt’s paintings and calculated them based on percentages. Next, the features were transformed, rotated, and scaled, then accurately placed within the frame of the face. Finally, we rendered the light based on gathered data in order to cast authentic shadows on each feature.
04 BRINGING IT TO LIFE
CREATING ACCURATE DEPTH AND TEXTURE
Analyses
We now had a digital file true to Rembrandt’s style in content, shapes, and lighting. But paintings aren’t just 2D — they have a remarkable three-dimensionality that comes from brushstrokes and layers of paint. To recreate this texture, we had to study 3D scans of Rembrandt’s paintings and analyze the intricate layers on top of the canvas.
“We looked at a number of Rembrandt paintings, and we scanned their surface texture, their elemental composition, and what kinds of pigments were used. That’s the kind of information you need if you want to generate a painting by Rembrandt virtually.”
– Joris Dik, Technical University Delft
USING A HEIGHT MAP TO PRINT IN 3D
We created a height map using two different algorithms that found texture patterns of canvas surfaces and layers of paint. That information was transformed into height data, allowing us to mimic the brushstrokes used by Rembrandt.
We then used an elevated printing technique on a 3D printer that output multiple layers of paint-based UV ink. The final height map determined how much ink was released onto the canvas during each layer of the printing process. In the end, we printed thirteen layers of ink, one on top of the other, to create a painting texture true to Rembrandt’s style.

ORIGINAL: Next Rembrandt