Michio Kaku: The Intelligence Revolution

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Publicado el 11/09/2012

Professor Michio Kaku, famous Theoretical Physicist and one of the inventors of Light Cone String Field Theory (one of the Relativistic forms of M-Theory), hosts a documentary on the use of computer technology, cognitive science, mathematical groupings, faster computers, sophisticated algorithms and, most importantly, better education that will will lead to “The Intelligence Revolution”.

Ubiquitous computing is fast approaching us, with computer technology quickly becoming present in almost every facet of society and technology. Soon computers will be so ubiquitous that they will toil away in almost pure invisibility: in our glasses, in our clothing even in our own body.
The synthesis between computer fabrication, computer connectivity and of nanotechnology will mean that computers will be smaller, more connected and everywhere with minimal impact environmentally and spatially but creating a renaissance in information control by the individual.

Dr. Kaku was a high achiever in his youth, to say the very least. He constructed a small-scale, but fully functional, Cyclotron Particle Accelerator in his senior years at high school. His goal was no less than to fabricate antimatter. Such ambition did not go unnoticed and got the attention of a very famous physicist, Dr. Edward Teller.
Dr. Teller noticed that young Michio was a very talented young man and promptly offered him a Harvard scholarship, starting his academic career. Michio’s initial education of physics and inspiration which he had to build a reasonably complicated device was triggered by his own education of the subject early in life mixed in with a bold curiosity.

Michio got his knowledge through books, children today are advanced data retrievers in comparison and can scour the internet for most of the content of human knowledge. Its no wonder children and young people are making such powerful innovations and ideas.
This synergy of Information Retrieval, Information Processing and Information Implementation is the engine of creativity and prosperity that, if we plan it correctly, could solve most of the problems facing us today:
Global Warming, Environmental disasters, Disease, War, Hunger and Energy shortages are all problems which need quick access to information to solve and fast processing of plans to implement action. The Internet has given us one way to do this, but with more work on smart computing, cloud computing and the expanding field of Neural Networking and Grid Computing we may be able to solve problems as a Global Civilization would.

The fact that our world will be governed by computer intelligence in the necessities such as travel, health and even fabrication itself may spur a revolution on par with the development of agriculture: we may have all the time in the world to simply ponder existence and have an armada of computer brains to help us find the secrets of existence.

In this documentary Michio Kaku shows us how the information revolution may reach these amazing new heights and how we may use our intelligence to reinforce our wisdom for generations by educating ourselves to think critically on real world problems.

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NASA And Google Partner To Work With A D-Wave Quantum Computer

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D-Wave 512-Qubit Bonded Processor – Recent Generation (Credit: D-Wave)

D-Wave, the Canadian-based company that is the first to offer a commercial quantum computer, announced today that it’s sold its second $10 million D-Wave Two system. The contract is between the Universities Space Research Association and D-Wave. Google, USRA, and NASA will be collaborating on the use of the machine.

The system will be installed at a new lab, which will be located at NASA’s Ames Research Center. The computer is expected to go online in the third quarter of 2013. In addition to the sale, D-Wave will also be providing ongoing services such as maintenance. The company also expects to work closely with NASA, Google and USRA on the system.

Lockheed Martin Installs Quantum Computer 
Jeff Bezos And The CIA Invest In D-Wave’s Quantum Computer
D-Wave Adds Two Silicon Valley Vets To Its C-Suite 

“I expect this to be a collaboration,” D-Wave’s U.S. President Bo Ewald told me. “Some of our scientists, mathematicians and computer scientists will be working at the Center.

Prior to selecting the contract with D-Wave, the partnership first conducted a series of benchmarks on the 512-qubit D-Wave Two system, and found that its specifications were met or exceeded. The computer will be upgraded to a 2,048 qubit system once D-Wave has perfected that chip.

It’s important to note that the D-Wave system is not a general computer like your PC. Rather, it’s optimized to solve particular types of problem, and it likely uses quantum effects to solve those problems.

(Whether the D-Wave system uses a quantum process for its computation has been a matter of hot dispute in academia. However, recent research by a USC team working with Lockheed Martin LMT -0.05%‘s D-Wave system appears to show that there are, indeed, quantum effects happening with the system. Whether those quantum effects produce a “speedup” – that is, computation faster than classical methods – is still an open question.)

The laboratory at Ames will be using the D-Wave System for a number of applications, but they’ll be focused on improving algorithms that are used to improve machine learning and artificial intelligence. The lab will also investigate whether the system can optimize the search for planets outside of our solar system.

We hope it helps researchers construct more efficient, effective models for everything from speech recognition, to web search, to protein folding,” Google said in a statement.

Under the terms of the agreement, 20% of the usage of the computer will be granted to University research. Research teams will compete to have their proposal use the machine selected. Once they’ve passed through that selection process, however, they’ll be granted use of the system free of charge.

For his part, Ewald is pretty excited about this step for the fledgling company. “For a company that’s just starting out, having Lockheed Martin as our first customer, then Google and NASA as number two? Well, that’s just a great way to start.

Update: An earlier version of this article indicated that NASA had partnered to purchase the D-Wave System. A NASA spokesperson clarified that while NASA is partnered with Google and USRA to use the system, NASA is “not purchasing or leasing it”.

Visualizing the Connectome

By admin,

ORIGINAL: Discover
May 12, 2013 4:49 am
Last year, I blogged about a new and very pretty way of displaying the data about the human ‘connectome’ – the wiring between different parts of the brain. 
But there are many beautiful ways of visualizing the brain’s connections, as neuroscientists Daniel Margulies and colleagues of Leipzig discuss in a colourful paper showcasing these techniques.
Here, for example, are two ways of showing the brain’s white matter tracts, as studied with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI):
Another striking image is this one, a representation of the brain’s functional connectivity – the degree to which activation in each part of the brain is correlated with activity in every other part.
The functional connectome is inherently difficult to visualize in 2D (or even 3D), but in this ingenious display, the brain’s surface is shown covered with hundreds of little brains, each one a colour-coded map of the connectivity from that particular point:
The Margulies paper is about more than just pretty pictures, though. The authors also discuss the scientific questions and theoretical tensions that surround the choice of one visualization over another:
Scientific figure and illustrations are – to paraphrase Tufte – where seeing turns into showing. The capacity of these images to influence our interpretation of data and to direct the questions of the scientific community make visualizations worthy of careful consideration during their production… 
If we present a figure that clarifies the scientific content, but does so by creating a distortion of brain space, is that bad practice? What if the caption and methods explicitly stated that the contents of the figure were not to be taken literally? To what degree should a visualization be allowed to stand alone? 
In my view, the study of connections has been dominated by images, more than any other branch of neuroscience. It’s rarely easy to say where ‘method’ or ‘analysis’ ends and ‘visualization’ begins. 
This is not a bad thing – connectivity is spatial, by definition, and to understand space is to visualize it. But it does mean that in the connectome, there is always a danger of valuing aesthetics over accuracy, beauty above brains.
Margulies DS, Böttger J, Watanabe A, & Gorgolewski KJ (2013). Visualizing the Human Connectome. NeuroImage PMID: 23660027

Quandl is the easiest way to find and use numerical data on the internet.

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Quandl is the easiest way to find and use numerical data on the internet.

Quandl has indexed over 5 million time-series datasets from over 400 sources. All of Quandl’s datasets are open and free.

You can download any Quandl dataset in any format that you want. You can also visualize, save, share, authenticate, validate, upload, index, merge and transform data .

Our long-term goal is to make all the numerical data on the internet easy to find and easy to use.

Further Reading

Learn more about Quandl:

  • Quandl’s long-term goal is to make all the numerical data on the internet easy to find and easy to use. Read more on our vision page.
  • Quandl currently has over 5 million datasets from over 400 sources. Explore Quandl’s data on our sources page.
  • Every dataset on Quandl is available via a simple and consistent API.
  • You can also access Quandl data using our R, Python, Matlab, Excel, Maple, Julia, Clojure, and Stata packages.
  • Check out what’s new on Quandl (data, features, topics) on our news page.
  • Explore Quandl’s features and what’s in the development pipeline. If you have suggestions, please email us.
  • Learn how developers are building innovative applications that use the Quandl data platform, on our partners page.
  • Questions or comments? Try our FAQ or email us.
  • Quandl is a collaborative project. Find out how you can get involved on our community page.

Quick Links: Vision | Sources | API | Packages | News | Features | Pipeline | FAQ | Community

Quandl is an index. It is a conduit to data published on various locations on the internet. Like any search engine, Quandl makes no claim to own the data it indexes or caches. Quandl endeavours to respect copyright. If you believe this site is indexing your copyright data and you would rather it not do so we have a simple take-down mechanism in place.

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“To Understand Is To Perceive Patterns

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from Jason Silva PLUS 1 year ago NOT YET RATED
Follow me on Twitter: twitter.com/JasonSilva
@JasonSilva and @notthisbody
Special thanks to filmmaker/photographer Rob Whitworth for allowing a clip from his video (vimeo.com/32958521) to be featured.
Check out his website: robwhitworth.co.uk
My videos:
Beginning of Infinity – vimeo.com/29938326
Imagination – vimeo.com/34902950
The Imaginary Foundation says “To Understand Is To Perceive Patterns“…
Albert-László Barabási, think about NETWORKS:
Networks are everywhere. The brain is a network of nerve cells connected by axons, and cells themselves are networks of molecules connected by biochemical reactions. Societies, too, are networks of people linked by friendships, familial relationships and professional ties. On a larger scale, food webs and ecosystems can be represented as networks of species.
For decades, we assumed that the components of such complex systems as the cell, the society, or the Internet are randomly wired together.
Steven Johnson, author of Where Good Ideas Come From, writes about recurring patterns and networks:
Coral reefs are sometimes called “the cities of the sea”, and we need to take the metaphor seriously: the reef ecosystem is so innovative because it shares some defining characteristics with actual cities. These patterns of innovation and creativity are fractal: they reappear in recognizable form as you zoom in and out, from molecule to neuron to pixel to sidewalk. Whether you’re looking at original innovations of carbon-based life, or the explosion of news tools on the web, the same shapes keep turning up… when life gets creative, it has a tendency to gravitate toward certain recurring patterns, whether those patterns are self-organizing, or whether they are deliberately crafted by human agents
“Put simply: cities are like ant colonies are like software is like slime molds are like evolution is like disease is like sewage systems are like poetry is like the neural pathways in our brain. Everything is connected.
“…Johnson uses ‘The Long Zoom’ to define the way he looks at the world—if you concentrate on any one level, there are patterns that you miss. When you step back and simultaneously consider, say, the sentience of a slime mold, the cultural life of downtown Manhattan and the behavior of artificially intelligent computer code, new patterns emerge.”
Geoffrey West, from The Santa Fe Institute,
…Network systems can sustain life at all scales, whether intracellularly or within you and me or in ecosystems or within a city…. If you have a million citizens in a city or if you have 1014 cells in your body, they have to be networked together in some optimal way for that system to function, to adapt, to grow, to mitigate, and to be long term resilient.
Author Paul Stammetts writes about The Mycelial Archetype: He compares the mushroom mycelium with the overlapping information-sharing systems that comprise the Internet, with the networked neurons in the brain, and with a computer model of dark matter in the universe.
Adrian Bejan takes the recurring patterns in nature—trees, tributaries, air passages, neural networks, and lightning bolts—and reveals how a single principle of physics, the Constructal Law, accounts for the evolution of these and all other designs in our world.
Everything—from biological life to inanimate systems—generates shape and structure and evolves in a sequence of ever-improving designs in order to facilitate flow. River basins, cardiovascular systems, and bolts of lightning are very efficient flow systems to move a current—of water, blood, or electricity.
Geoffrey WEST on The sameness of organisms, cities, and corporations:
Stephen Johnson’s LONG VIEW
A collaboration of /Jason Silva and /Notthisbody incorporating:
/Aaron Koblin
/Andrea Tseng
/Genki Ito
/Cheryl Colan
/Grant Kayl
/Katie Armstrong
/Page Stephenson
/Jesse Kanda
/Jared Raab
/Angela Palmer
/Pedro Miguel Cruz
/Takuya Hosogane
/Rob Whitworth
**and some original animations from Tiffany Shlain’s film CONNECTED: An Autoblogography about Love, Death & Technology // music is Clint Mansell’s “We’re going home” from Moon Soundtrack. Buy it on iTunes!

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Interview: How Ray Kurzweil Plans To Revolutionize Search At Google

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Ray Kurzweil

Raymond Kurzweil (Photo: Wikipedia)

When Google announced in January that Ray Kurzweil would be joining the company, a lot of people wondered why the phenomenally accomplished entrepreneur and futurist would want to work for a large company he didn’t start.

Kurzweil’s answer: No one but Google could provide the kind of computing and engineering resources he needed to fulfill his life’s work. Ever since age 14, the 65-year-old inventor of everything from music synthesizers to speech recognition systems has aimed to create a true artificial intelligence, even going so far as to predict that machines would match human intelligence by 2029.

Now, as a director of engineering at Google, he’s focusing specifically on enabling computers to truly understand and even speak in natural language. As I outlined in a recent story on deep learning–a fast-rising branch of AI that attempts to mimic the human neocortex to recognize patterns in speech, images, and other data–Kurzweil eventually wants to help create a “cybernetic friend” that knows what you want before you do.

Kurzweil’s focus is timely from a competitive standpoint as well. Google upped the ante on Apr. 29 by bringing its Google Now voice search app to the iPhone and iPad, in direct competition with Apple’s Siri. And Facebook just revealed that itbuilt a natural-language interface for its Graph Search service announced earlier this year. It’s becoming clear that search is already starting to move beyond the “caveman queries” that characterized effective search techniques until recently.

In a recent interview I conducted for the story, Kurzweil revealed a surprising amount of detail about his planned work at Google. No doubt the nature of that work will evolve as he settles in at the company, but so far, this interview provides possibly the deepest look so far at his plans.

At least initially, that work won’t relate directly to advertising, the main subject of this blog. But marketers will need to understand how profoundly Kurzweil’s and others’ work at Google could change not only what search will become in the age of more and more intelligent machines, but  the way we interact with information and even each other. All that is sure to mean big changes in the nature of advertising and marketing–well before 2029.

Q: In your book, How to Create a Mind, you lay out a theory of how the brain works. Can you explain it briefly?

A: The world is hierarchical. Only mammals have a neocortex, and the neocortex evolved to provide a better understanding of the structure of the world so you can do a better job of modifying it to your needs and solving problems within a hierarchical world. We think in a hierarchical manner. Our first invention was language, and language is hierarchical.

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Talking about the Computational Future at SXSW 2013

By admin,

March 19, 2013
Last week I gave a talk at SXSW 2013 in Austin about some of the things I’m thinking about these days—including quite a few that I’ve never talked publicly about before. Here’s a video, and a slightly edited transcript:
Well, this is a pretty exciting time for me. Because it turns out that a whole bunch of things that I’ve been working on for more than 30 years are all finally converging, in a very nice way. And what I’d like to do here today is tell you a bit about that, and about some things I’ve figured out recently—and about what it all means for our future.
This is going to be a bit of a wild talk in some ways. It’s going to go from pretty intellectual stuff about basic science and so on, to some really practical technology developments, with a few sneak peeks at things I’ve never shown before.
Let’s start from some science. And you know, a lot of what I’ll say today connects back to what I thought at first was a small discovery that I made about 30 years ago. Let me tell you the story.
I started out at a pretty young age as a physicist. Diligently doing physics pretty much the way it had been done for 300 years. Starting from this-or-that equation, and then doing the math to figure out predictions from it. That worked pretty well in some cases. But there were too many cases where it just didn’t work. So I got to wondering whether there might be some alternative; a different approach.
At the time I’d been using computers as practical tools for quite a while—and I’d even created a big software system that was a forerunner of Mathematica. And what I gradually began to think was that actually computers—and computation—weren’t just useful tools; they were actually the main event. And that one could use them to generalize how one does science: to think not just in terms of math and equations, but in terms of arbitrary computations and programs.
So, OK, what kind of programs might nature use? Given how complicated the things we see in nature are, we might think the programs it’s running must be really complicated. Maybe thousands or millions of lines of code. Like programs we write to do things.
But I thought: let’s start simple. Let’s find out what happens with tiny programs—maybe a line or two of code long. And let’s find out what those do. So I decided to do an experiment. Just set up programs like that, and run them. Here’s one of the ones I started with. It’s called a cellular automaton. It consists of a line of cells, each one either black or not. And it runs down the page computing the new color of each cell using the little rule at the bottom there.
OK, so there’s a simple program, and it does something simple. But let’s point our computational telescope out into the computational universe and just look at all simple programs that work like the one here.
Well, we see a bunch of things going on. Often pretty simple. A repeating pattern. Sometimes a fractal. But you don’t have to go far before you see much stranger stuff.
This is a program I call “rule 30“. What’s it doing? Let’s run it a little longer.
That’s pretty complicated. And if we just saw this somewhere out there, we’d probably figure it was pretty hard to make. But actually, it all comes just from that tiny program at the bottom. That’s it. And when I first saw this, it was my sort of little modern “Galileo moment”. I’d seen something through my computational telescope that eventually made me change my whole world view. And made me realize that computation—even as done by a tiny program like the one here—is vastly more powerful and important than I’d ever imagined.
Well, I’ve spent the past few decades working through the consequences of this. And it’s led me to build a new kind of science, to create all sorts of practical technology, and to make me think about almost everything in a different way. I published a big book about the science about ten years ago. And at the time when the book came out, there was a quite a bit of “paradigm shift turbulence“. But looking back it’s really nice to see how well the science has taken root.
And for example there are models based on my kinds of simple programs showing up everywhere. After 300 years of being dominated by Newton-style equations and math, the frontiers are definitely now going to simple programs and the new kind of science.
But there’s still one ultimate app out there to be done: to figure out the fundamental theory of physics—to figure out how our whole universe works. It’s kind of tantalizing. We see these very simple programs, with very complex behavior.
It makes one think that maybe there’s a simple program for our whole universe. And that even though physics seems to involve more and more complicated equations, that somewhere underneath it all there might just be a tiny little program. We don’t know if things work that way. But if out there in the computational universe of possible programs, the program for our universe is just sitting there waiting to be found, it seems embarrassing not to be looking for it.
Now if there is indeed a simple program for our universe, it’s sort of inevitable that it has to operate kind of underneath our standard notions like space and time and so on. Maybe it’s a little like this.
A giant network of nodes, that make up space a bit like molecules make up the air in this room. Well, you can start just trying possible programs that create such things. Each one is in a sense a candidate universe.
And when you do this, you can pretty quickly say most of them can’t be our universe. Time stops after an instant. There are an infinite number of dimensions. There can’t be particles or matter. Or other pathologies.

What is a Smarter Planet? Instrumented. Intelligent. Interconnected.

By admin,


On a smarter planet, we want to change the paradigm from react to anticipate

For five years, IBMers have been working with companies, cities and communities around the world to build a Smarter Planet.

We’ve seen enormous advances, as leaders are using an explosion of data to transform their enterprises and institutions through analytics, mobile technology, social business and the cloud.

We’ve also seen how this new era is starting to create winners. They’re changing how their decisions are made. They’re redesigning how their teams work, reassessing how to serve their customers, and changing the very nature of business.

It’s the ability to harness data that gives these leaders their competitive advantage in the era of “smart.”

Today, conventions once universally held are giving way to new perspectives, new ways of working, and new solutions acrossindustries. Roles are changing. And more than ever, leaders need a partner to help them adapt.


What can you do on a smarter planet?

To outperform on a smarter planet, enterprises face some fundamental needs:

Turn information into insights

Organizations are overwhelmed with data. On a smarter planet, the most successful organizations can turn this data into valuable insights about customers, operations, even pricing. With advanced analytics, you can open new opportunities for business optimization by enabling rapid, informed and confident decisions and actions.

Read more about Smarter Analytics.

Connect and empower people

Innovation comes from collaboration. And collaboration comes from everywhere. Firms that embrace the power of social technologies will unleash the productivity and innovation throughout the entire value chain—from employees to partners to suppliers to customers.

Read more about Social Business.


The cloud removes restraints

Smarter comes at a cost: hardware, programs, people to run them. Cloud computing offers multiple ways to reduce that cost through efficient use of resources. Utilizing the cloud means not having to power idle equipment and being able to rethink and redistribute software quickly and easily. It also means a nimbler, more efficient organization.

Read more about Cloud Computing.


Customers come of age

There’s a new breed of customers today. Empowered by technology, transparency and abundant information, they want to engage with companies on their own terms―when they want and how they want. To engage and keep these customers, organizations need a whole new integrated approach. There’s no room for business and usual.

Read more about Smarter Commerce.


Business moves to mobility

Even as storefronts had to adapt to the Internet, commerce is adapting to mobility. Armed with smartphones and tablets, consumers want to use those devices to browse, shop and pay. Today’s leaders recognize that desire and are building mobile enterprises in response.

Read more about Mobile Enterprise.

Manage risk, security and compliance

Even on a smarter planet there are risks: security, credit, market, operational, environmental and compliance risks…to name a few. With the right process and system improvements, leaders can identify, assess and monitor these risks to mitigate and prevent them.

Read more about Smarter Security.


Integrated solutions pave the way

While many enterprises share similarities, those are mostly superficial. To achieve the most from an information technology system today, your organization needs a solution that is tailored to your objectives and needs. Integrating the hardware and software into a single system provides the most power, the least pain and the best outcomes.

Read more about PureSystems and PureData.

Drive enterprises' effectiveness and efficiency

In a slow growth environment, organizations must do more with less. To succeed, your organization must drive continuous and sustainable operational improvements to lower costs and reduce complexity.

Read more about Smarter Computing.



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MIT’s 2013 Top 10 Breakthrough Technologies – 1: Deep Learning

By admin,

Deep Learning
With massive amounts of computational power, machines can now recognize objects and translate speech in real time. Artificial intelligence is finally getting smart.
Image by Jimmy Turrell

When Ray Kurzweil met with Google CEO Larry Page last July, he wasn’t looking for a job. A respected inventor who’s become a machine-intelligence futurist, Kurzweil wanted to discuss his upcoming book How to Create a Mind. He told Page, who had read an early draft, that he wanted to start a company to develop his ideas about how to build a truly intelligent computer: one that could understand language and then make inferences and decisions on its own.

It quickly became obvious that such an effort would require nothing less than Google-scale data and computing power. “I could try to give you some access to it,” Page told Kurzweil. “But it’s going to be very difficult to do that for an independent company.” So Page suggested that Kurzweil, who had never held a job anywhere but his own companies, join Google instead. It didn’t take Kurzweil long to make up his mind: in January he started working for Google as a director of engineering. “This is the culmination of literally 50 years of my focus on artificial intelligence,” he says.
Kurzweil was attracted not just by Google’s computing resources but also by the startling progress the company has made in a branch of AI called deep learning. Deep-learning software attempts to mimic the activity in layers of neurons in the neocortex, the wrinkly 80 percent of the brain where thinking occurs. The software learns, in a very real sense, to recognize patterns in digital representations of sounds, images, and other data.
The basic idea—that software can simulate the neocortex’s large array of neurons in an artificial “neural network”—is decades old, and it has led to as many disappointments as breakthroughs. But because of improvements in mathematical formulas and increasingly powerful computers, computer scientists can now model many more layers of virtual neurons than ever before.
With this greater depth, they are producing remarkable advances in speech and image recognition. Last June, a Google deep-learning system that had been shown 10 million images from YouTube videos proved almost twice as good as any previous image recognition effort at identifying objects such as cats. Google also used the technology to cut the error rate on speech recognition in its latest Android mobile software. In October, Microsoft chief research officer Rick Rashid wowed attendees at a lecture in China with a demonstration of speech software that transcribed his spoken words into English text with an error rate of 7 percent, translated them into Chinese-language text, and then simulated his own voice uttering them in Mandarin. That same month, a team of three graduate students and two professors won a contest held by Merck to identify molecules that could lead to new drugs. The group used deep learning to zero in on the molecules most likely to bind to their targets.
Google in particular has become a magnet for deep learning and related AI talent. In March the company bought a startup cofounded by Geoffrey Hinton, a University of Toronto computer science professor who was part of the team that won the Merck contest. Hinton, who will split his time between the university and Google, says he plans to “take ideas out of this field and apply them to real problems” such as image recognition, search, and natural-language understanding, he says.
All this has normally cautious AI researchers hopeful that intelligent machines may finally escape the pages of science fiction. Indeed, machine intelligence is starting to transform everything from communications and computing to medicine, manufacturing, and transportation. The possibilities are apparent in IBM’s Jeopardy!-winning Watson computer, which uses some deep-learning techniques and is now being trained to help doctors make better decisions. Microsoft has deployed deep learning in its Windows Phone and Bing voice search.
Extending deep learning into applications beyond speech and image recognition will require more conceptual and software breakthroughs, not to mention many more advances in processing power. And we probably won’t see machines we all agree can think for themselves for years, perhaps decades—if ever. But for now, says Peter Lee, head of Microsoft Research USA, “deep learning has reignited some of the grand challenges in artificial intelligence.
Building a Brain
There have been many competing approaches to those challenges. One has been to feed computers with information and rules about the world, which required programmers to laboriously write software that is familiar with the attributes of, say, an edge or a sound. That took lots of time and still left the systems unable to deal with ambiguous data; they were limited to narrow, controlled applications such as phone menu systems that ask you to make queries by saying specific words.
Neural networks, developed in the 1950s not long after the dawn of AI research, looked promising because they attempted to simulate the way the brain worked, though in greatly simplified form. A program maps out a set of virtual neurons and then assigns random numerical values, or “weights,” to connections between them. These weights determine how each simulated neuron responds—with a mathematical output between 0 and 1—to a digitized feature such as an edge or a shade of blue in an image, or a particular energy level at one frequency in a phoneme, the individual unit of sound in spoken syllables.
Some of today’s artificial neural networks can train themselves to recognize complex patterns.
Programmers would train a neural network to detect an object or phoneme by blitzing the network with digitized versions of images containing those objects or sound waves containing those phonemes. If the network didn’t accurately recognize a particular pattern, an algorithm would adjust the weights. The eventual goal of this training was to get the network to consistently recognize the patterns in speech or sets of images that we humans know as, say, the phoneme “d” or the image of a dog. This is much the same way a child learns what a dog is by noticing the details of head shape, behavior, and the like in furry, barking animals that other people call dogs.
But early neural networks could simulate only a very limited number of neurons at once, so they could not recognize patterns of great complexity. They languished through the 1970s.

In the mid-1980s, Hinton and others helped spark a revival of interest in neural networks with so-called “deep” models that made better use of many layers of software neurons. But the technique still required heavy human involvement: programmers had to label data before feeding it to the network. And complex speech or image recognition required more computer power than was then available.

Finally, however, in the last decade ­Hinton and other researchers made some fundamental conceptual breakthroughs. In 2006, Hinton developed a more efficient way to teach individual layers of neurons.

  • The first layer learns primitive features, like an edge in an image or the tiniest unit of speech sound. It does this by finding combinations of digitized pixels or sound waves that occur more often than they should by chance.
  • Once that layer accurately recognizes those features, they’re fed to the next layer, which trains itself to recognize more complex features, like a corner or a combination of speech sounds.
  • The process is repeated in successive layers until the system can reliably recognize phonemes or objects.

Like cats.Last June, Google demonstrated one of the largest neural networks yet, with more than a billion connections. A team led by Stanford computer science professor Andrew Ng and Google Fellow Jeff Dean showed the system images from 10 million randomly selected YouTube videos. One simulated neuron in the software model fixated on images of cats. Others focused on human faces, yellow flowers, and other objects. And thanks to the power of deep learning, the system identified these discrete objects even though no humans had ever defined or labeled them.

What stunned some AI experts, though, was the magnitude of improvement in image recognition. The system correctly categorized objects and themes in the ­YouTube images 16 percent of the time. That might not sound impressive, but it was 70 percent better than previous methods. And, Dean notes, there were 22,000 categories to choose from; correctly slotting objects into some of them required, for example, distinguishing between two similar varieties of skate fish. That would have been challenging even for most humans. When the system was asked to sort the images into 1,000 more general categories, the accuracy rate jumped above 50 percent.
Big Data
Training the many layers of virtual neurons in the experiment took 16,000 computer processors—the kind of computing infrastructure that Google has developed for its search engine and other services. At least 80 percent of the recent advances in AI can be attributed to the availability of more computer power, reckons Dileep George, cofounder of the machine-learning startup Vicarious.
There’s more to it than the sheer size of Google’s data centers, though. Deep learning has also benefited from the company’s method of splitting computing tasks among many machines so they can be done much more quickly. That’s a technology Dean helped develop earlier in his 14-year career at Google. It vastly speeds up the training of deep-learning neural networks as well, enabling Google to run larger networks and feed a lot more data to them.
Already, deep learning has improved voice search on smartphones. Until last year, Google’s Android software used a method that misunderstood many words. But in preparation for a new release of Android last July, Dean and his team helped replace part of the speech system with one based on deep learning. Because the multiple layers of neurons allow for more precise training on the many variants of a sound, the system can recognize scraps of sound more reliably, especially in noisy environments such as subway platforms. Since it’s likelier to understand what was actually uttered, the result it returns is likelier to be accurate as well. Almost overnight, the number of errors fell by up to 25 percent—results so good that many reviewers now deem Android’s voice search smarter than Apple’s more famous Siri voice assistant.
For all the advances, not everyone thinks deep learning can move artificial intelligence toward something rivaling human intelligence. Some critics say deep learning and AI in general ignore too much of the brain’s biology in favor of brute-force computing.
One such critic is Jeff Hawkins, founder of Palm Computing, whose latest venture, Numenta, is developing a machine-learning system that is biologically inspired but does not use deep learning. Numenta’s system can help predict energy consumption patterns and the likelihood that a machine such as a windmill is about to fail. Hawkins, author of On Intelligence, a 2004 book on how the brain works and how it might provide a guide to building intelligent machines, says deep learning fails to account for the concept of time. Brains process streams of sensory data, he says, and human learning depends on our ability to recall sequences of patterns: when you watch a video of a cat doing something funny, it’s the motion that matters, not a series of still images like those Google used in its experiment. “Google’s attitude is: lots of data makes up for everything,” Hawkins says.

But if it doesn’t make up for everything, the computing (data & human)resources a company like Google throws at these problems can’t be dismissed. They’re crucial, say deep-learning advocates, because the brain itself is still so much more complex than any of today’s neural networks. “You need lots of computational resources to make the ideas work at all,” says Hinton.

What’s Next
Although Google is less than forthcoming about future applications, the prospects are intriguing. Clearly, better image search would help YouTube, for instance. And Dean says deep-learning models can use phoneme data from English to more quickly train systems to recognize the spoken sounds in other languages. It’s also likely that more sophisticated image recognition could make Google’s self-driving cars much better. Then there’s search and the ads that underwrite it. Both could see vast improvements from any technology that’s better and faster at recognizing what people are really looking for—maybe even before they realize it.
Sergey Brin has said he wants to build a benign version of HAL in 2001: A Space Odyssey.

This is what intrigues Kurzweil, 65, who has long had a vision of intelligent machines. In high school, he wrote software that enabled a computer to create original music in various classical styles, which he demonstrated in a 1965 appearance on the TV show I’ve Got a Secret. Since then, his inventions have included several firsts—

  • a print-to-speech reading machine,
  • software that could scan and digitize printed text in any font,
  • music synthesizers that could re-create the sound of orchestral instruments, and
  • a speech recognition system with a large vocabulary.
Today, he envisions a “cybernetic friend” that listens in on your phone conversations, reads your e-mail, and tracks your every move—if you let it, of course—so it can tell you things you want to know even before you ask. This isn’t his immediate goal at Google, but it matches that of Google cofounder Sergey Brin, who said in the company’s early days that he wanted to build the equivalent of the sentient computer HAL in 2001: A Space Odyssey—except one that wouldn’t kill people.
For now, Kurzweil aims to help computers understand and even speak in natural language.My mandate is to give computers enough understanding of natural language to do useful things—do a better job of search, do a better job of answering questions,” he says. Essentially, he hopes to create a more flexible version of IBM’s Watson, which he admires for its ability to understand Jeopardy!queries as quirky as “a long, tiresome speech delivered by a frothy pie topping.” (Watson’s correct answer: “What is a meringue harangue?”)
Kurzweil isn’t focused solely on deep learning, though he says his approach to speech recognition is based on similar theories about how the brain works. He wants to model the actual meaning of words, phrases, and sentences, including ambiguities that usually trip up computers. “I have an idea in mind of a graphical way to represent the semantic meaning of language,” he says.
That in turn will require a more comprehensive way to graph the syntax of sentences. Google is already using this kind of analysis to improve grammar in translations. Natural-language understanding will also require computers to grasp what we humans think of as common-sense meaning. For that, Kurzweil will tap into the Knowledge Graph Google’s catalogue of some 700 million topics, locations, people, and more, plus billions of relationships among them. It was introduced last year as a way to provide searchers with answers to their queries, not just links.
Finally, Kurzweil plans to apply deep-learning algorithms to help computers deal with the “soft boundaries and ambiguities in language.” If all that sounds daunting, it is. “Natural-language understanding is not a goal that is finished at some point, any more than search,” he says. “That’s not a project I think I’ll ever finish.
Though Kurzweil’s vision is still years from reality, deep learning is likely to spur other applications beyond speech and image recognition in the nearer term. For one, there’s drug discovery. The surprise victory by Hinton’s group in the Merck contest clearly showed the utility of deep learning in a field where few had expected it to make an impact.
That’s not all. Microsoft’s Peter Lee says there’s promising early research on potential uses of deep learning in machine vision—technologies that use imaging for applications such as industrial inspection and robot guidance. He also envisions personal sensors that deep neural networks could use to predict medical problems. And sensors throughout a city might feed deep-learning systems that could, for instance, predict where traffic jams might occur.
In a field that attempts something as profound as modeling the human brain, it’s inevitable that one technique won’t solve all the challenges. But for now, this one is leading the way in artificial intelligence. “Deep learning,” says Dean, “is a really powerful metaphor for learning about the world.

bootstrapping biotechnology: engineers cooperate to realize precision grammar for programming cells

By admin,

by vivek_mutalik
16 mar 2013

Palo Alto and Berkeley, Calif. – March 10, 2013 An unprecedented collaboration among academia, industry, government and civil society has resulted in the launch of a professional-grade collection of public domain DNA parts that greatly increases the reliability and precision by which biology can be engineered.

Researchers at the International Open Facility Advancing Biotechnology (aka, BIOFAB) have just announced that they have, in effect, established rules for the first language for engineering gene expression, the layer between the genome and all the dynamic processes of life. The feat is all the more remarkable considering that just a few years ago several prominent scientists claimed that it would be impossible to develop frameworks enabling reliably reusable standard biological parts.

Collectively, the BIOFAB team has produced thousands of high quality standard biological parts. The DNA sequences that encode all parts and the data about them are free and available online. The project is detailed in three research papers, “Precise and Reliable Gene Expression via Standard Transcription and Translation Initiation Elements,” and “Quantitative Estimation of Activity and Quality for Collections of Functional Genetic Elements,” published simultaneously in Nature Methods, and “Measurement and Modeling of Intrinsic Transcription Terminators,” forthcoming in Nucleic Acids Research (see full citations below).

The BIOFAB’s rules for engineering expression come in the form of mathematical models that can be used to predict and characterize the individual parts used in synthetic biology. The work establishes a much-needed technological foundation for the field, allowing researchers to engineer the function of DNA more precisely, and to better predict the resultant behavior.

Dr. Vivek Mutalik, a BIOFAB team leader, says that synthetic biology has been plagued by a lack of reliability and predictability. “Until now, virtually every project has been a one-off – we haven’t figured out how to standardize the genetic parts that are the building blocks of this new field. Researchers produce amazing new parts all the time, but much like trying to use someone else’s house key in your own door, it’s been difficult to directly reuse parts across projects.” Without the ability to characterize parts – that is, to understand how they will behave in multiple contexts – biotech researchers are doomed to a lengthy process of trial-and-error. Fortunately, notes Mutalik, “Our work in the BIOFAB changes all that.”

The plan for establishing the rules for how genetic parts fit together was ambitious and complex. First, researchers needed to figure out the functional patterns of genetic parts. They had to ask, “To what extent do the basic genetic parts that control gene expression ‘misbehave’ when reused over and again in novel combinations,” said Mutalik. BIOFAB researchers had to make and test hundreds of combinations of frequently used parts, then take the resulting data and build mathematical models that demonstrated part quality.

Joao Guimaraes, a member of the BIOFAB team and graduate student in computational biology, explains that difficult-to-predict parts are deemed to be low quality, while “high quality parts behave the same when reused.” Once they found a way to determine part quality, the BIOFAB team set to work on establishing rules for precision control of gene expression, a process that underlies all of biotechnology. They learned by observing natural examples of genetic junctions, and built reliable transcription and translation initiation elements. “We also created standard junctions for transcription terminators, a molecular ‘stop sign’ for gene expression,” said Dr. Guillaume Cambray, a BIOFAB team leader.

While the initial BIOFAB project was able to tame three types of core genetic parts, much more work remains. “We ask that others expand upon the genetic grammar initiated here, to incorporate additional genetic functions and to translate the common rule set beyond E. coli,” says Stanford professor and BIOFAB co-director Drew Endy. (Endy also serves as president of the BioBricks Foundation.)

The BIOFAB’s seed money came from the National Science Foundation, but this funding came only after 10 years of knocking on doors. Part of the difficulty was that the BIOFAB represented a fundamental engineering research project. It’s not the kind of work that is suitable for a single graduate student thesis, and it wasn’t economically practical for a biotechnology company to take it on. UC Berkeley professor and BIOFAB co-director Adam Arkin noted that, “We knew that we would only be successful if we could bring together the skills represented by both academia and industry to establish a professional team that could specify and solve the fundamental engineering puzzles that slow the development of effective biotechnologies”

The BIOFAB’s collaboration with not only the NSF, but also with industry, has been one of the keys to its success. “Pre-competitive and unrestricted partnerships with industry were essential to guide the work and help secure and extend public funding,” said UC Berkeley professor and BIOFAB advisor Jay Keasling. (Both Arkin and Keasling are also affiliated with Lawrence Berkeley Lab; Arkin is Director of the Physical Biosciences Division, and Keasling is an Associate Lab Director for Biosciences.) Other partners came from civil society, including the BioBricks Foundation, a public-benefit organization that helps to advance best practices in the emerging field of synthetic biology. “We were thrilled to help make all BIOFAB engineered parts free-to-use via the BioBrick Public Agreement and the public domain,” said Holly Million, the foundation’s executive director.

The BIOFAB’s standardized parts are specific for E. coli but the “grammar” – the way in which the rules are constructed for how the parts fit together – should apply to nearly any organism; many of the BIOFAB’s rules for E.coli are expected to apply to other prokaryotes. The initial parts have already begun to have an impact in academic research. Caroline Ajo-Franklin, staff scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley Lab’s Biological Nanostructures Facility, noted that her work was able to progress much faster because of the availability of the source code. “We knew we needed a quantitatively characterized library of reliable promoters to move our research efforts forward. Teaming up with BIOFAB changed what would have been at least six months of work into a few weeks.”

The BIOFAB’s work was supported by the National Science Foundation, the Synthetic Biology Engineering Research Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the BioBricks Foundation, Agilent, Genencor, DSM, and Autodesk.


“Quantitative estimation of activity and quality for collections of functional genetic elements.” Vivek K Mutalik, Joao C Guimaraes, Guillaume Cambray, Quynh-Anh Mai, Marc Juul Christoffersen, Lance Martin, Ayumi Yu, Colin Lam, Cesar Rodriguez, Gaymon Bennett, Jay D Keasling, Drew Endy & Adam P Arkin, 10 March 2013, Nature Methods. doi:10.1038/nmeth.2403

“Precise and reliable gene expression via standard transcription and translation initiation elements.” Vivek K Mutalik, Joao C Guimaraes, Guillaume Cambray, Colin Lam, Marc Juul Christoffersen, Quynh-Anh Mai, Andrew B Tran, Morgan Paull, Jay D Keasling, Adam P Arkin & Drew Endy, 10 March 2013, Nature Methods. doi:10.1038/nmeth.2404

“Measurement and modeling of intrinsic transcription terminators.” Guillaume. Cambray, Joao C. Guimaraes, Vivek K. Mutalik, Colin Lam, Quynh-Anh Mai, Tim Thimmaiah, James M. Carothers, Adam P. Arkin and Drew Endy, March 2013, Nucleic Acids Research.


Press Release

Additional Coverage

DNA tool kit goes live online

Predictability: The brass ring for synthetic biology

Graphene foams: Cozy and conductive scaffolds for neural stem cells

By admin,

by John Hewitt
Apr 04, 2013 
Graphene Foam. Credit: from google, via ars technical 
(Phys.org) —Graphene foams have been around now for a couple years. Their widespread application in everything from electronics and energy storage to substitutes for helium in balloons is still greatly anticipated. Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Suzhou, and Beijing, have now shown that graphene foams can also be used to craft conductive scaffolds for neural stem cells. Their open paper, published yesterday in Nature’s Scientific Reports, suggests new approaches for neural tissue engineering, and possibly for interfacing with neural prosthetics. 
It has been previously reported that graphene sheets support growth and differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSCs) in a similar fashion to other common substrates like glass or polymer PDMS. Chinese researchers have done pioneering work in synthesizing graphene foams to exacting standards of purity and uniformity. When coated with laminin or other matrix proteins, these foams could potentially serve not only as compatible neural housing but also as a means to control the tenants electrically.
To probe the electrical characteristics of the foam the researchers used cyclic voltammetry, a common technique often used in basic electrochemistry. Their results indicated that the cells could be safely stimulated via capacitive charge injection in the potential window range from -0.2 to + 0.8 V, similar again to results from 2D graphene film studies. They further noted that the 3D foam architecture provides more efficient charge injection and potentially more specific stimulation capability.
It is instructive here to note that our painful collective history with asbestos fiber has shown us that geometry can make the poison as much as any chemical effect. It is not just the aspect of the asbestos fiber, but its inconvenient scale that makes its presence so insidious within the lung. Similarly the researchers did not expect to just toss a few neurons onto a random trusswork and expect the ladder’s rungs to be ideally spaced. Indeed the images provided by the authors show the seeded NSCs clinging to the graphene structure like spacewalking astronauts trawling along a space station—but somehow they not only survived, but seemed to thrive.
The graphene foams were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using a Ni foam template. Scanning electron microscope observation showed a porous structure, which was determined to average 100-300um while the graphene skeleton width was around 100-200um. The surface chemistry of the graphene foams was characterized the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The criteria used to gauge inertness of the surface was the presence of a large peak corresponding to non-oxygenated rings and small peaks for the C-O bonds.
NSC adhesion and proliferation on 3D-GF scaffold. Credit: Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/srep01604 

Cytotoxicity, evaluated using Calcein-AM and EthD-I staining, showed that 90% of the cells were viable at 5 days out. Proliferation of NSCs was measured from the expression of Ki-67 protein, a marker for cell proliferation that is absent during interphase, and was initially expressed in 80% of the cells. After 5 days, the cells exhibited elongated cell shape with neurite outgrowth, and covered the entire foam surface to confluence. Tuj-1-postive neurons, O4-positive oligodendrocytes, and GFAP-positive astrocytes were all observed in healy abundance.

The longer term clinical scenario for these kinds of studies is still unfolding. In the absence of vascularization, neurons can only bear to have so many neighbors nearby, and still receive adequate nourishment through diffusion. The traditional concept of using degradable matrices that would be later implanted into the cortex has yet to be realized. Chemical enticements to integrate with the local neuritic field and vasculature are just beginning to be explored for these kinds of explant studies. Permanent matrices with functionalized surfaces that would also be electrically addressable would be a welcome addition to this toolkit. 
Real cortical gray matter is a jungle where ceaseless competition for every cubic nanometer of space is not just a game of survival, it is the lifeblood of every thought and memory. If you were to imagine wrestlers in a steel cage match, packed to hilt, you would not be too far off. Every electromechanical spike, every mini-potential produced in a dendrite, is a breath. A little extra bit of power upon inhalation to exert upon competitors held in mutual death-grip, only to have it ever so tightened again after each exhalation. Successful introduction of novice and metabolically disadvantaged tissue into this strategic landscape would require certain considerations on its behalf. Extra stimulation, growth factor, or oxygenation might be just what it takes to ensure productive evolution of new structure.
Another final take-home message of the paper suggests is that some level of editorial patience must have been afforded for the many obvious grammatical missteps and outright phraseological foibles understandably introduced by the Chinese authorship. It is a small price to pay perhaps for our mutual collaboration. It is encouraging that Western journals welcome the continued publication of Chinese advances in fields like graphene processing, along with the efforts of the authors taken to make it understandable to us.
More information: Three-dimensional graphene foam as a biocompatible and conductive scaffold for neural stem cells, Scientific Reports 3, Article number: 1604. doi:10.1038/srep01604
Neural stem cell (NSC) based therapy provides a promising approach for neural regeneration. For the success of NSC clinical application, a scaffold is required to provide three-dimensional (3D) cell growth microenvironments and appropriate synergistic cell guidance cues. Here, we report the first utilization of graphene foam, a 3D porous structure, as a novel scaffold for NSCs in vitro. It was found that three-dimensional graphene foams (3D-GFs) can not only support NSC growth, but also keep cell at an active proliferation state with upregulation of Ki67 expression than that of two-dimensional graphene films. Meanwhile, phenotypic analysis indicated that 3D-GFs can enhance the NSC differentiation towards astrocytes and especially neurons. Furthermore, a good electrical coupling of 3D-GFs with differentiated NSCs for efficient electrical stimulation was observed. Our findings implicate 3D-GFs could offer a powerful platform for NSC research, neural tissue engineering and neural prostheses.
Journal reference: Scientific Reports

See-through brains clarify connections

By admin,

Helen Shen
10 April 2013
Technique to make tissue transparent offers three-dimensional view of neural networks. 
Mind readers 
Nature Video reveals how Karl Deisseroth and his team created 3D visualizations of mouse brains.
A chemical treatment that turns whole organs transparent offers a big boost to the field of ‘connectomics’ — the push to map the brain’s fiendishly complicated wiring. Scientists could use the technique to view large networks of neurons with unprecedented ease and accuracy. The technology also opens up new research avenues for old brains that were saved from patients and healthy donors.
This is probably one of the most important advances for doing neuroanatomy in decades,” says Thomas Insel, director of the US National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland, which funded part of the work. Existing technology allows scientists to see neurons and their connections in microscopic detail — but only across tiny slivers of tissue. Researchers must reconstruct three-dimensional data from images of these thin slices. Aligning hundreds or even thousands of these snapshots to map long-range projections of nerve cells is laborious and error-prone, rendering fine-grain analysis of whole brains practically impossible.
Related stories
The new method instead allows researchers to see directly into optically transparent whole brains or thick blocks of brain tissue. Called CLARITY, it was devised by Karl Deisseroth and his team at Stanford University in California. “You can get right down to the fine structure of the system while not losing the big picture,” says Deisseroth, who adds that his group is in the process of rendering an entire human brain transparent.
The technique, published online in Nature on 10 April, turns the brain transparent using the detergent SDS, which strips away lipids that normally block the passage of light (K. Chung et al. Nature http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12107; 2013). Other groups have tried to clarify brains in the past, but many lipid-extraction techniques dissolve proteins and thus make it harder to identify different types of neurons. Deisseroth’s group solved this problem by first infusing the brain with acryl­amide, which binds proteins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. When the acrylamide is heated, it polymerizes and forms a tissue-wide mesh that secures the molecules. The resulting brain–hydrogel hybrid showed only 8% protein loss after lipid extraction, compared to 41% with existing methods. 
resulting brain–hydrogel hybrid showed only 8% protein loss after lipid extraction, compared to 41% with existing methods. 
Applying CLARITY to whole mouse brains, the researchers viewed fluorescently labelled neurons in areas ranging from outer layers of the cortex to deep structures such as the thalamus. They also traced individual nerve fibres through 0.5-millimetre-thick slabs of formalin-preserved autopsied human brain — orders of magnitude thicker than slices currently imaged.
Neurons in an intact mouse hippocampus visualized using CLARITY and fluorescent labelling. Kwanghun Chung & Karl Deisseroth, HHMI/Stanford Univ. 

The work is spectacular. The results are unlike anything else in the field,” says Van Wedeen, a neuroscientist at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston and a lead investigator on the US National Institutes of Health’s Human Connectome Project (HCP), which aims to chart the brain’s neuronal communication networks. The new technique, he says, could reveal important cellular details that would complement data on large-scale neuronal pathways that he and his colleagues are mapping in the HCP’s 1,200 healthy participants using magnetic resonance imaging.

Francine Benes, director of the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center at McLean Hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts, says that more tests are needed to assess whether the lipid-clearing treatment alters or damages the fundamental structure of brain tissue. But she and others predict that CLARITY will pave the way for studies on healthy brain wiring, and on brain disorders and ageing.
Researchers could, for example, compare circuitry in banked tissue from people with neurological diseases and from controls whose brains were healthy. Such studies in living people are impossible, because most neuron-tracing methods require genetic engineering or injection of dye in living animals. Scientists might also revisit the many specimens in repositories that have been difficult to analyse because human brains are so large.
The hydrogel–tissue hybrid formed by CLARITY — stiffer and more chemically stable than untreated tissue — might also turn delicate and rare disease specimens into re­usable resources, Deisseroth says. One could, in effect, create a library of brains that different researchers check out, study and then return. Nature 496, 151 (11 April 2013) doi:10.1038/496151a

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